Network Solutions in kenya
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Paleankenya Networking hardware technologies and techniques
Appropriate use of active equipment helps designers optimize network bandwidth.
In today’s networks, there are several names for network equipment. Three basic types are hubs, switches, and routers, and what is known as a “switching router” is a combination of the switch and router. Hubs, switches, and routers work within the first, second, and third layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model, respectively.
In the first networks, workstations were all connected by coaxial cable in a bus topology. The drawbacks of such a network are obvious. Certainly, the physical configuration of a workgroup is limited by the bus formation. Additionally, because signals transmitted across wire degrade over distance, the bus length is constrained. A not-so-apparent drawback is that the workstations on a bus are connected in a daisy-chain manner, so that a cable break anywhere affects virtually the entire network. No networking equipment was necessary in this type of connected environment.
Hubs, which facilitate network connectivity in a star topology, provide two major advantages over the older bus topology. First, a cable break affects only a single node rather than the entire network, and second, hubs accommodate the ubiquitous un-shielded twisted-pair cable.
Implementing a star topology requires a device such as a hub at the center of the star to emulate the function of a bus-allowing any device to hear the transmissions of any other device connected to the central device. Hubs operate on Layer 1 of the OSI model and repeat the transmissions arriving on one port to all ports.
Unlike hubs, switches make intelligent forwarding decisions rather than merely repeating all transmissions to all ports. Switches are transparent on a network, often characterized as plug-and-play. In other words, if you replaced the hub with a switch in a small network, the network would continue to function, but with increased capacity.
When the switch receives a frame on a port, it examines the frame’s header to learn the source address. Once completing this examination, the switch knows the port address of the appropriate device. The switch adds that information to its forwarding table, which essentially is a database of all the devices with known source addresses and their port addresses. By listening to network traffic, the switch quickly learns the locations of all devices on a network.